Zh. I. Alferov
Zh. I. Alferov, photo

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov was born on March 15, 1930, in Vitebsk (USSR, now Belarus). In December 1952 he graduated from Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute. In January 1953 he became staff member of the Ioffe Institute, where de defended his candidate (1961) and doctoral (1970) theses. Corresponding Member (1972), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1979). From 1987 to 2003 — Director of the Ioffe Institute.

In 2000 he was awarded (together with H. Kroemer) Nobel Prize in Physics for basic work on information and communication technology particularly for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics.

As shown theoretically and experimentally in the studies carried out by the laureate at the Ioffe Institute, it is possible to control in a novel way fluxes of electrons and photons in semiconductor heterostructures, artificial crystals grown from semiconductors with different chemical compositions. Lasers, light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, transistors and solar cells developed on the basis of heterostructures are universally used in modern systems for information transfer and storage and in space power engineering.

Alferov is one of the most prominent organizers of academic science in Russia and proponent of creation of educational centres at leading institutes of the RAS. Educational centre for physics and technology organized by him at the Ioffe Institute has been functioning since 1999, since 2004 — as an independent institution affiliated to the RAS, and since 2009 — as St Petersburg Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre of the RAS.

At present, he is Vice-President of the RAS, Chair of the St Petersburg Scientific Centre of the RAS, Rector of the St Petersburg Academic University.

Zh. Alferov is the author of four books, more than 500 scientific articles and 50 inventions in semiconductor technology.

Awards

  • The Order "Sign of Honor" (USSR, 1959),
  • Ballantyne Medal of the Franklin Institute (USA, 1971),
  • Lenin Prize (USSR, 1972),
  • The Order of Labor Red Banner (USSR, 1975),
  • Hewlett-Packard Europhysics Prize (1978),
  • The Order of the October Revolution (USSR, 1980),
  • State Prize (USSR, 1984),
  • The Order of Lenin (USSR, 1986),
  • GaAs Symposium Award and H. Walker Medal (USA, 1987),
  • Karpinskii Prize (FRG, 1989),
  • Ioffe Prize, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, 1996),
  • Foreign Member of the OSA (USA, 1997),
  • The Order of Service to the Fatherland third degree (Russia, 1999),
  • Demidov Prize (Russia, 1999),
  • The Order of Service to the Fatherland second degree (Russia, 2000),
  • The Medal of Alexander Popov, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, 2000),
  • Nicholas Holonyak, Jr. Award (USA, 2000),
  • The Nobel Prize for Physics (Sweden, 2000),
  • Kyoto Prize — Advanced Technology (Japan, 2001),
  • V.I. Vernadskiy Award, NAS (Ukraine, 2001),
  • State Prize (Russia, 2001),
  • The Order of Francis Skorina (Belarus, 2002),
  • The Medal, "Marin Drinov" of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria, 2002),
  • Gold Medal Award, SPIE (2002),
  • Golden Plate Award, Academy of Achievement (USA, 2002),
  • The Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Ukraine, 2003),
  • The Giorgi Nikoladze Medal (Georgia, 2005),
  • The Order of Service to the Fatherland first degree (Russia, 2005),
  • Global Energy Prize (Russia, 2005),
  • The Medal of Friendship (Cuba, 2006),
  • Brothers Karich Prize (Serbia, 2007),
  • The Order of Frienship of Peoples (Belarus 2009),
  • Wisdom Award of the University of Athens (Greece, 2009),
  • The Order of Service to the Fatherland fourth degree (Russia, 2010).

Honorary Membership

  • Life Fellow of the Franklin Institute (USA, 1971),
  • Foreign Member of the German Academy of Sciences (GDR, 1987),
  • Honorary Professor of the Havana University (Cuba, 1987),
  • Foreign Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland, 1988),
  • Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Engineering (USA, 1990),
  • Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (USA, 1990),
  • Honorary Member of the Metrological Academy, St Petersburg (Russia, 1994),
  • Foreign Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Belarus, 1995),
  • Foreign Member of the Korean Academy of Science and Technology (Korea, 1995),
  • Honorary Member of the Pakistan Society for Semiconductor Science and Technology (Pakistan, 1996),
  • Fellow of the Leibniz Association (Germany, 1997),
  • Honorary Academician of the International Academy of Refrigeration, St Petersburg (Russia, 1997),
  • Academician of the International Academy of Ecology, Man and Nature Protection Sciences, St Petersburg (Russia, 1998),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Humanity University, St Petersburg (Russia, 1998),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russia, 1998),
  • Honorary Professor of the Institute of Management and Economics, St Petersburg (Russia, 1999),
  • Honorary Doctor of the State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russia, 2000),
  • Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (Russia, 2000),
  • Academician of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences (Russia, 2000),
  • Foreign Member of the National Academy of Sciences (Ukraine, 2000),
  • Fellow of the Optical Society of America (USA, 2000),
  • Fellow and Charted Physicist of the Institute of Physics (United Kingdom, 2000),
  • Honorary member of the European Academy of Sciences (EU, 2001),
  • Honorary member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts (EU, 2001),
  • Honorary Doctor of Belarusian State University (Belarus, 2001),
  • Honorary Doctor of Shota Rustaveli State University (Georgia, 2001),
  • Member of the Russian Academy of Education (Russia, 2001),
  • Honorary Doctor of the State Electrotechnical University (LETI), St Petersburg (Russia, 2001),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Moscow State University (Russia, 2001),
  • Doctor Honoris Causa by the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain, 2001),
  • Foreign Member of the Spain Engineering Academy (Spain, 2001),
  • Honorary Fellowship of the Institute of Physics (Singapore, 2001),
  • Honorary Doctor of Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus, 2002),
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the National Institute for Applied Sciences,Toulouse (France, 2002),
  • Foreign Member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (Azerbaijan, 2002),
  • Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba (Cuba, 2002),
  • Honorary Professor of the Moscow State Pedagogical University (Russia, 2002),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Japan, 2002),
  • Honorary Professorship at Nanjing University (China, 2002),
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the Plovdiv University (Bulgaria, 2002),
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Turku (Finland, 2003),
  • Honorary Doctor of the National Technical University of Ukraine "Kiev Polytechnic Institute" (Ukraine 2003),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Tavrichesky University (Ukraine, 2003),
  • Honorary Foreign Member of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (Moldova, 2004),
  • Honorary Professor of the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (China, 2005),
  • Honorary Professor of the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China, 2005),
  • Honorary Professor of the Ulyanovsk State University (Russia, 2005),
  • Honorary Doctor of the University of St Andrews (United Kingdom, 2006),
  • Honorary Doctor of the University of Dundee (United Kingdom, 2006),
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Oulu (Finland, 2006),
  • Foreign Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China, 2006),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Arkhangelsk State Technical University (Russia, 2006),
  • Honorary Professor of Vitebsk State Technological University (Belarus, 2007),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Donetsk National University (Ukraine, 2007),
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the Tampere University of Technology (Finland, 2007),
  • Academician of the National Engineering Academy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan, 2007),
  • Honorary Professor of the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilev (Kazakhstan, 2007),
  • Professor of Konkuk University (South Korea, 2007),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Novosibirsk State University (Russia, 2007),
  • Member of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (Mongolia, 2008),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Far Eastern National University (Russia, 2008),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Tomsk State University (Russia, 2008),
  • Champion of Technology (United Kingdom, 2009),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Technical University of Berlin (Germany, 2009),
  • Honorary Member of the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (Montenegra, 2009),
  • Honorary Doctor of the Samara State Aerospace University named after academician S.P. Korolyov (Russia, 2009).

Eponymous asteroid is named after Zhores Alferov.